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Concerto in Eb Major

Hob. VIIe:1

By Franz Joseph Haydn

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Brass Trumpet in Bb (Trumpet in Eb)
Hob. VIIe:1. Composed by Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). Edited by Elisa Koehler. SWS. Score and part(s). With Standard notation. 28 + 8 pages. Carl Fischer Music #W2680. Published by Carl Fischer Music (CF.W2680).

Item Number: CF.W2680

ISBN 9781491144398. 9 x 12 inches. Key: Eb major.

Haydn's Trumpet Concerto in Eb Major for Bb Trumpet is unquestionably the most important solo work in the trumpet repertoire. Edited by soloist Elisa Koehler, this edition also includes the solo part for Eb Trumpet.
Haydnas Trumpet Concerto is unquestionably the most important solo work in the trumpet repertoire. It is the only trumpet concerto written by a major composer of stature and one of the earliest works for a fully chromatic highbrass instrument that features melodic writing in the lower register. Baroque solo repertoire for the natural trumpet was, by contrast, very high and the difficult technique of clarino playing had fallen out of fashion in the late eighteenth century along with the courtly traditions of the Baroque era. Haydnas concerto was genuinely revolutionary. Not only did it explore the artistic possibilities of a new kind of trumpet, it launched the careers of classical trumpet soloists in the twentieth century and validated the trumpet as a solo instrument in the concert hall and the recording studio. It was also Haydnas last purely symphonic composition, his last concerto, and it is often considered to be his best concerto for any instrument, let alone a trumpet. And yet, while the concerto is an essential classic today, it languished in obscurity for more than a century after its premiere until it was revived through a BBC Broadcast by Ernest Hall (1932) and influential recordings by George Eskdale (1939), Harry Mortimer (1949), and Helmut Wobisch (1950).1 Franz Joseph Haydn (1732a1809) composed the Concerto in E? Major (Hob. VIIe:1) for the Austrian trumpeter Anton Weidinger (1766a1852) and his newly invented keyed trumpet in 1796. He premiered the work four years later on March 28, 1800 in Vienna. While it has often been reported that Weidinger and Haydn were friends, recent research by musicologist Bryan Proksch has shown that Haydn was something like a guardian for Weidingeras wife, Susanna Zeiss, the orphaned daughter of court trumpeter Franz Zeiss (d. 1783), and that Haydnas concerto may have been a gift for the coupleas wedding in 1797, at which Haydn was a witness.2 Haydn most likely composed the concerto for an idealized conception of a chromatically capable trumpet, rather than for Weidingeras actual instrument. It took Weidinger four years to make improvements to his keyed trumpet in order to perform the concerto. The two works he performed prior to the Haydn premiere by Leopold KoA 3/4 eluch (1798) and Joseph Weigl Jr. (1799) were less demanding than the Haydn and required only a few chromatic passages. When Weidinger finally did perform the Haydn concerto at an aacademya in 1800, ironically, hardly anyone came to listen. The diary of J. C. Rosenbaum, who did attend, reports that the hall was aemptya because the star attractionathe soprano Therese Gassmannawas ahoarse.a Weidingeras keyed trumpet operated like a woodwind instrument with levers (keys) that uncovered holes in the trumpetas tubing when pressed. The opened holes effectively shortened the length of the trumpet and consequently changed its pitch, which accessed additional notes from a different harmonic series. Contemporary accounts report that the instrument had a sweet, covered sound, similar to that of a French horn played with hand-stopping technique.4 The difference in tone between keyed (open) and natural (closed) notes was minimized at softer dynamic levels. The sound of the keyed trumpet is no longer a mystery thanks to the many fine recordings on modern reproductions by Friedemann Immer, Reinhold Friederich, and Crispian Steele-Perkins, for example. Following the concertoas revival in the twentieth century, several inconsistencies have crept into modern editions and recordings. Two of the most common are the omission of the opening awarm-up notesa in the first movement (mm. 8a16) and the incorrect location of the cadenza and the end of the third movement. This edition restores the opening awarm-up notes,a because they are vital to the motivic structure of the first movement and represent one of Haydnas best musical jokes in the concerto: The awarm-up notesa are playable on the natural trumpet, which makes the unplayable low D and subsequent low register scales in the first solo passage (mm. 37a48) all the more startling.5 In the third movement, a cadenza should not interrupt Haydnas trademark surprise pause at mm. 284a285, but should instead be placed in m. 124, where a fermata appears (the traditional signal to insert a cadenza). And that cadenza should only be a few measures long because it is actually an Eingang [entrance], a unique feature of Classical era concerti, which is a brief flourish intended to decorate, but not distract from the sonata-rondo structure of the finale. I have written cadenzas for the first and third movements, but trumpeters are naturally encouraged to compose their own. The rehearsal letters in this edition are borrowed from the orchestral score edited by Edward H. Tarr and H. C. Robbins Landon (Universal Edition, 1982), in case trumpeters wish to use the solo part from this edition when performing with orchestra.

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